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Solving problems with gis

Sustainable development planning, decision-making, and management are comprehensive processes which deal with multiple-dimension problems aiming at achieving balanced economic development, environmental protection, and social equity and welfare. The use of (geographic) information to support (spatial) decision-making requires availability of data, and tools to analyze data to be integrated in complex information systems.
In the second part of this book eleven chapters are presented which are concerned with the application of GIScience core methods and tools to support specific tasks commonly found in spatial planning and decision-making. Methods and techniques for data production, data modeling, system integration, and advanced spatial analysis are proposed in this part of the book aiming at presenting recent research results in hot topics within this general theme. Methods and tools presented here should be liable for being integrated in broader information systems to support spatial planning processes.
Data production is often by far the most costly part of information system development. Within GIS, besides traditional expensive field surveying techniques, remote-sensing data have been proven to supply, at a relatively lower cost for the end users, the possibility to collect and maintain large datasets in terms of spatial footprints and time series. Environment can thus be monitored constantly, and changes detected promptly. Last-generation satellite sensors have improved significantly and offer very high-quality data in terms of spatial and spectral resolutions. Geographic information a few years ago collected once every so many years can now be recorded with daily temporal resolution. Once raw data are collected, techniques should be available for data processing in order to supply useful information for decision-making. This is still an open broad research field, and improved techniques for semiautomatic data processing and thematic information production are proposed unceasingly by scientific research.

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